Russian national costume (photo)

Today in Sweden and Germany it is customary to wear national clothes even on holidays that are not related to the customs of their ancestors. In our fast-paced rhythm of life, such days, filled with joy and respect, give a person a sense of security and involvement in centuries-old traditions.

Russia has a very rich history of Russian national costume ; there are families in which grandmother embroideries are still kept. In old great-grandmother's photographs, clothes still retain the imprint of the tradition of their ancestors.

Russian national costume

The national costume of any country reflects the natural conditions of the area, attitude to family values ​​and the main types of employment of people. Consider what women's and men's clothing consisted of, and their names with a detailed description and photo.

Important! The Russian national costume differed in the area of ​​residence, marital status, there were sets for everyday wear and festive clothes.

There are two types of the national set of Russia :

  • northern areas;
  • southern.

In central Russia they wore clothes similar to the northern costume. At that time, clothing was layered, many types of outerwear.

History of Russian national costume

In the form known to us, the national costume was formed in Ancient Russia in about the seventh century . Over the next centuries, he changed little.

For Russians, the main activity was farming, many holidays and customs associated with the harvest of wheat. Clothing also reflected the main occupation of the peasants. Cut, the custom of tying was aimed at making the suit comfortable in the field.

Interesting! Before the reign of Peter I, all classes wore the national costume in Russia, only expensive materials and more jewelry were used for the nobility. In 1699, by decree of Peter the Great, the wearing of a national costume was prohibited, an exception was made for the peasant estate, villagers were allowed to continue to wear their usual clothes. A duty on a beard and a Russian costume was introduced from all those entering the city.

Elements of Russian folk costume

By purpose, the clothes were divided into everyday, work and holiday. The festive clothes were richly decorated, embroidery was also on everyday, the working one was the simplest, made of durable materials.

Reference! The shirt for the harvest was decorated with embroidery as well as the festive one, in this the attitude of the peasants to the harvest was expressed.

All the outer clothing of the Russian national costume was of two types:

  • swinging clothes, fastened in front on buttons or hooks;
  • cape, dressed over her head.

What does a women's suit consist of?

Women's national costume is much more beautiful and interesting than men's.

The main parts of the kits came from Ancient Russia. In the women's national costume, the ideas of that time about female beauty and family values ​​were laid.

The silhouette is straight or extended downward, emphasizing the figure was not accepted, for the national set is characterized by layering.

Women's costume is distinguished by purpose:

  • everyday clothes were made of cotton, linen and woolen fabric, including up to seven items;
  • in tailoring elegant clothes used velvet, brocade, good quality wool. Festive women's clothing set could consist of twenty items. Such things were expensive, carefully decorated, dressed on special holidays and in church. Smart sets were stored in chests, the best were inherited.

Word of mouth

The basis of the North Russian costume was a shirt; it was sewn from linen and cotton fabric. The bottom of the shirt, sleeves and neck were decorated with embroidery. Embroidery was more modest for everyday shirts, and the festive shirt was richly decorated with embroidered motifs.

A sundress was put on the shirt. A sundress is one of the characteristic details of the Russian national kit . Translated from Iranian means "fully dressed." On top of the sundress, they belted a beautiful belt and apron. They wore a swing sundress in Russia with embroidery on the edge of the floor and a fastener on buttons.

The “round” sundress did not have a fastener, otherwise it was called “direct” and it appeared much later than the oar.

On top of a sundress in a festive costume of a peasant woman, dressed up an elegant murderer. In the upper part it was collected in small folds, to the bottom it was wide. Length barely covered her waist. Such a murmur was made of expensive fabrics, brocade and velvet.

The winter sundress was made of cloth, and a warm murderer, a shubei, an opashin or a Telogrey was dressed on top. Warm murmur was quilted with cotton and decorated with a fur trim. Warm stockings, a shawl and a warm hat complemented the outfit.

Ponyvny kit

The core kit is considered to be older; it was worn in the southern regions of Russia .

Such a set consists of a long canvas shirt and ponev.

Holiday dress and for every day

Poneva is a skirt . Distinguish between deaf and swinging poneva. It consisted of three panels, richly decorated with woven patterns and embroidery. The basis was wool fabric "in a cage", the hem and panel were decorated with rows of embroidery or braid. A narrow girdle, a traffic cop, held the ponev at the waist.

In the villages there was a custom of “donning, ” he meant, that a girl could now be enlightened.

Women's hats

The headdress not only protected the head, but also could tell a lot about the woman.

The headdress of an unmarried girl consisted of ribbons and braid. The hair was partially open to the eye.

After marriage, a woman put on a kiku, a ubrus scarf was put on top, her hair was completely closed.

For the holidays, married women wore an elegant headdress - a kokoshnik . Kika and Kokoshnik were intended to go out to people, at home the woman wore a warrior (cap) and a scarf.

Russian kokoshnik

Breast and neck jewelry complemented the outfit. Such jewelry consisted of beads, colored wool and bead threads.

In elegant women's clothing, even buttons were richly decorated.

Men's national costume

In contrast to the women's costume, the male is less bright, consisted of a smaller number of objects. In a men's suit, it was customary to emphasize the figure, and consisted of the following elements.


All men, starting with boys, wore shirts, mostly they were shirts-shirts.

Reference! It is believed that in the beginning the fastener of the shirt was in the center, the braid appeared so that the pectoral cross did not fall out during operation.

The neck, sleeves and bottom were decorated with embroidered motifs, the bride had to make embroidery on the shirt that they married. This custom has a sacred meaning, such embroidery made by the hands of a loving woman served as a talisman.

A caftan was dressing over a shirt . Men could wear a long caftan or short half caftan. The caftan was fastened with buttons or tied with ribbons.

Pants and belt

Men's pants or ports were sewn from striped fabric . More often they are of small volume, wide harem pants were less common. The length of the ports is shortened, as was customary, to fill the bottom of the pants in the bootleg. Later pockets appeared, and at first everything necessary was tied to a belt.

All the peasants were tied with an embroidered belt, wide and long unmarried guys. Married men tied a narrow and short belt.

The belt on the figure was tied differently : young men emphasized the waist with a belt; in old people, the belt was under the stomach.


Men always complemented the costume with a hat. At first it was a woolen cap – sinner, later a cap appeared, a special kind of cap, decorated with ribbons, flowers, and beads . In winter, they protected their heads with a cap with earflaps .

There were other winter hats that came from Ancient Russia. Under the winter hat they wore a small taffy hat . They protected the head in a cold, expanded to the top of the murmolka. Hats were decorated with fur, which warmed his head well.


In autumn and winter, men wore sheepskin coats, fur coats, and retinues . The clothes of prosperous peasants were decorated with a fur collar; in the poor man's outer clothing, a standing collar protected him from the cold wind.

17th century traditional clothing in Russia

Everyone wore fur coats : the poor had hare sheepskin coats or sheepskin coats, the rich wore fur coats from sable or marten . To make it warmer, they wore a fur coat inside and the top was covered with cloth.

Russian national costume has a very rich history. Individual items today serve as a source of inspiration for fashion designers. The abundance of types of clothing, a variety of embroidery motifs provides good soil for the successors who create modern clothes.